Crate Training

Crate Training

What’s a crate?

A crate is a safety confined small space where your pup should feel safe and relaxed.

In nature this would be the same thing as their “Den”. This is where they can crash and feel safe. A Den in nature is small, cosy and usually there’s only on entrance or doorway. Danger can only come from one place so its easy to protect.

When living with humans dogs usually find their own little corner maybe underneath a bed or furniture to snuggle up. This is kind of their domestic dens.

Crate training means that you train your dog to feel safe and relaxed in the crate. Basically you want to think of the crate as their ¨den¨.

A crate is not a place to punish your pup or a place for your pup to hide. If your pup is in a fearful state of mind close the crate before he or she gets in and use it when he or she is relaxed.

When should we use it?

Crate training is basically used for three reasons:

1 – Potty training and house training: The crate is a great tool to create a schedule for your pup. Because dogs don’t pee or poop where they sleep you can use the crate when you can’t supervise him or her to avoid ¨accidents¨ in your house.

2 – Destructive behavior: A crate or a pen that is puppy proofed allows you to have a space in your house where your pup doest have access to chew on your furniture, shoes or more importantly things that can actually kill them or injure them such as electric cables, medicine etc.

3 – In certain cases for separation anxiety: Crate training can come pretty handy to prevent or to fix separation anxiety. It teaches your pup to be left alone and sleeping.

How to Crate train.

The first thing you should work is on letting your pup in and out of the crate. You can do this by simply luring your dog with treats or a desirable toy into the crate. Do it several times during the day. Don not close the gate when doing this. Other things that can help is to hide treats or food crumbs in the crate so your pup spends some time there looking for them with the door open.This will create a positive association with the crate.

IMPORTANT note: While you do this don’t put a lot of excitement, keep it low key and do it in silence. The reason why is because a crate should be a relaxed place where your puppy is going to sleep or simply relax and calm down. It´s counter productive to get your dog all excited to go to the crate and then shut the door and expect him or her to relax and calm down. This is a very common mistake.

Once you’ve created a positive association with the crate, you also want to practice leading your dog to the crate with a leash and making him or her wait  before leaving the crate. Do not force or push your pup into the crate, just lead him or her gently and confidently. This is a good practice because food creates excitement and excitement is what your are trying to avoid when you are crate training your pup. You want your dog to go calmly to the crate, remain calm and get out of it calmly too.

If you leave an excited dog in a crate this becomes a jail not a den.

The second step is to leave your pup for a while with the door close. The best way to do this is after a long walk or a good session of training when your pup is tired and ready to crash. Leave your dog in the crate while he or she is calm and take him or her out of the crate while he or she is still calm. Don’t wait until they start baking! If not your dog will learn that barking gets him or her out of the crate.

Do this in silence and don’t say good bye or talk to your dog. Engaging with your dog and creating excitement before  leaving him or her in the crate gets your pup confused. Dogs don’t understand what good bye means because they don’t understand English.  Good bye is not a command and is not good manners its just a tease.

So to recap a little bit and avoid confusions: Use treats or toys to create a positive association with the crate, but once your are going to close the door be calm and avoid excitement.

© Gabriel Riesco, NYC,  November 2017

The Secret

The Secret

“Difference between Training/Conditioning and Relationship / Bonding and Communicating”

There is a big difference between these two concepts that are usually misunderstood or completely unknown even among some professional dog trainers.

1.-   Training / conditioning  means teaching your dog human language and cues to condition your dog to obey certain commands like sit, stay, down etc – usually  with treats and positive reinforcement or sometimes with punishment. (This is based on Pavlov and Skinner´s theories ): “If you do this : “sit”, you get this: “reward” or if you do this : ¨unwanted behavior¨ you get this : ¨punishment¨.

2.-  Relationship/ Bonding and communicating with your dog means using energy and body language to communicate espec, trust, love, and boundaries – usually in silence. What you establish here is basically three things: 1.The relationship you have with your pup  2.The way you communicate with your dog.   3.Acknowledging your pups state of mind

Your dog can be highly trained with conditioning and training techniques and yet still have a lot of behavioral issues. I see this happening more often than not.

Any given human can have very sharpened skills or even be a genius at maths, law, or computer programming but still struggle with social behavior, boundaries, manners or simply adapting to an environment. Acquiring a specific and sharpened skill doing something doesn´t mean you are social adaptable to an environment.

A simpler way of seeing this is thinking of Relationship / bonding / communicating as social behavior skills, such as good manners, respect, trust and boundaries and thinking of training/conditioning as going to Harvard or MIT , where you can learn very specific skills.

You don´t need to be a genius or go to Harvard to be successful with social behavior and you don´t need to be successful with social behavior or balanced  to be a genius. You can have one or the other, both or none.

The one that will put you or your pup in trouble is the lack of social / behoavioral skills. This has to do with Respect, Boundaries, Rules and Limits. In animal world this has nothing to do with being ¨good¨ or ¨bad¨, it has to do with being ¨in control¨ or ¨out of control¨.

In other words you are not gonna go to jail because didn´t go to Yale, but you will go to jail if you destroy Yale.

Most of my clients did already a lot or some dog training. They took their pups to obedience class or taught them a good amount of commands and skills like sit, stay, leave it, off, lay down, bring me a beer etc  you name it. Wether they used positive reinforcement techniques or punishment to teach them it doesn´t really matter. (Although I don´t recommend punishment).

The fact is that even after being successful at training all those commands, the pup is still having behavioral issues. Why? Because the lack of Respect, Trust and Self Control.

There are several reasons for this:

1.Your Relationship with your dog. If your pup doesn’t view you as their ¨parent¨ or decision maker then he/she will expect you to listen to him or her. An example of this is when I hear the dog owner saying:  ¨My dog only listens to me when he or she wants to¨ or ¨My dog only listens to me when I have a treat on my hand¨.

2. The fact that your dog learns the meaning of a certain human word  (ex: sit)  doesn’t mean that your pup is actually going to obey when you say so. The same way you can know the meaning of a Speed Limit Sign and yet you decide to drive faster 😉

3. Your pup learns to listen to your reward (treats, toys etc) not to you.

4. If your pup is in the wrong state of mind, no matter how much training and conditioning you´ve worked on, your pup wont´t listen. Any animal on fight/flight state of mind will not listen to anyone unless you force them. And forcing does not create acceptance it creates resistance. BTW by any animal I include humans!

Knowing when and how to use and integrate this two different approaches (Training/conditioning and Relationship / Bonding and Commnicating) is key in order to create and to maintain a harmonious relationship.

Usually when you want to add a behavior you use positive reinforcement (Conditioning and training) and when you want to remove a behavior you use boundaries, limits and rules (Relationship, Bonding and Communicating).

© Gabriel Riesco, NYC,  November 2017

 Separation Anxiety 

 Separation Anxiety 

Separation anxiety is a fairly common problem in the city. Your dog will become stressed when you leave your house or when your about to leave. The photo above is how my dog is when I leave the house. As you can see he is not very concerned. And that´s how you want your dog to be when you leave the house: Nice and relaxed.

Some of the most common symptoms of separation anxiety are: excessive salivating, urinating/defecating, barking, howling, whining, scratching walls, digging, destructive behavior, escaping, pacing. Sometimes it can cause self injury.

Causes of dog separation anxiety.

This can happen because of  a change in residence, change of parent or a sudden absence of a family member. It can also be developed through time with dogs that were never taught to be left alone.

Separation anxiety is easy to understand and to solve if you understand some basic concepts of dog and human psychology. There are basically two main reasons why this can happen:

  1. Your relationship with your dog. This is the most important one. If your dog thinks he or she is in control of the household or of you, then you are in trouble. What your pup is telling you is not to leave the house, but you leave anyways. Imagine you tell your 5 year old not to leave the house, but she leaves anyways and manages to lock you in the house. Now she is running around the street with cars coming in and out. Who do you think is going to have anxiety? You or your 5 year old? Of course you. Why? Because you are the parent and you are in charge. If your relationship with your dog is upside down, basically what´s happening in your pup´s mind is that you are the rebellious teenager that is leaving the house without his or her consent. This causes anxiety. You can confine the body in a crate, in a room or in the garden, but if you don’t convince the mind your pup will go crazy. A lot of cases of separation anxiety they simply disappear when you change the relationship. It happens fast and the change is dramatic. It´s like taking a big heavy load out of your pup´s back.They simply relax and enjoy life. I´ve seen it many times myself.
  2. Your pup´s state of mind. Separation anxiety can still happen even when you know 100% sure that you are the one in control of the household or the parent in the relationship. What happens in this case  is that your dog gets anxious because you are LEAVING. He/she  escalates and gets out of control. In his/her mind when you LEAVE means you are not coming back. Wether you come back or not its not important at that moment, because dogs live in the present.  There is a fine line where your pup will escalate or will calm down. Your  ability to prevent your dog from escalating before he/she gets out of control or anxious is key. Success is NOT how long you can go out of your house until your pup barks or get anxious. Success is going out of your house with your dog being calm and coming back while your pup is calm. Even if it´s for 5 seconds. If your pup can be calm for 5 seconds he/she can be calm for 5 hours. It´s a matter of working on duration.


Note: It´s very important to know that if you don´t have your relationship with your pup clear nothing will work.

© Gabriel Riesco, Fairfield CT,  November 2017

Leash Aggression

Leash Aggression

As I mentioned in one of my previous blog, not mastering the walk with your pup can cause several problems. One of them is Leash Aggression.

Let me start by explaining what leash aggression is.  Leash aggression means that your dog gets aggressive when on leash. The outcome could be excessive barking, lunging or attacking another dog or human.

An example for this  is a dog that is well socialized and has no problems off leash, but as soon as you put the leash on, he or she starts getting aggressive with other dogs or humans.

Leash aggression is always caused by lack of leash communication between you and your pup. If you already adopted your pup with this problem, don´t worry it´s still on your hands to fix it.

There is no leash without humans, so you can kind of guess what´s the cause of the problem. When you remove the leash, you remove the human, you remove the problem.

Yes, this might be a little painful to hear, but if your pup has leash aggression there are good chances that you´ve created it. But dont´t worry if human created it, human can fix it. If you are reading this your are in the right path to find the solution.

What´s happening is that your dog is associating the leash with restraining and tension, so he or she starts building up frustration.  When a trigger comes up, it becomes an explosion.


Often, dog parents have their pups on tight leash, “in case anything happens.”  Unfortunately, the tight leash communicates tension to the dog, and it further increases their stress.

Be aware that the leash restricts your dog´s capacity to move freely. When you attached the leash to your pup he or she is in a weaker position which can make him/her  vulnerable. In a way she is depending on you and you have to convince her that she can trust you. Pulling and restraining doesn’t´ communicate trust, quite the opposite. What you are telling your pup is to get ready for the battle.

It´s funny how humans focus their attention on the dogs instead of on themselves. I usually get comments like:

  • “ My dog hates the leash” or
  • “my dog hates going for a walk, she just wants to run” or
  • “my dog is just a bad walker by nature”

Well, dogs are by nature good walkers. They love to walk, to explore and to go to places. And by nature they do it in a very calm manner. Leashes are created by humans not by nature, so it´s not a natural thing for them. They need proper guidance and we need to learn how to communicate properly.

A very common mistake people make is to tense up the leash to gain control of situation. “To play safe”.

I get it, you are taking care of liability,  but that´s exactly what created the problem.  “Liability” is a human problem not a dog problem.

Of course liability is something you want to take into consideration, but remember when you put tension, wether is physical or mental, your dog doesn´t know why. They only know you are getting tense and they react to it.

Teaching your dog that leash means “time for a nice and relaxed walk where no-one is going to pull or fight the leash” is entirely up to you.

It doesn’t come from liability thinking, it comes from self control, awareness and learning how to comunicate properly with the leash in a gentle manner.

Check out my blog on Leash Communication where I explain how to gently and effectively communicate if you are not already doing so. I will give you a couple of tips that will help the process.

Meanwhile I will give you something to consider if you are struggling with Leash Aggression:  Success is measured by good behavior or the lack of a reaction, it is NOT a measure of how close you can get before a reaction. Maintaining a good state of mind is much more effective than trying to change it or punish it after it occur.

© Gabriel Riesco, Fairfield CT,  October 2017


The Walk!!

The Walk!!

I can´t emphasize enough the importance of the walk. As you can see from my previous blogs you can understand that walking your dog correctly is crucial for a harmonious relationship. Here is the WHY:

Did you know that If you master the walk you´ve done 80% of your dog training homework?

Walking your pup is much more than just a way of exercising FIDO. It´s the best way to bond with your pup,  stops him or her from getting bored, it’s a behavior training opportunity, and it teaches your dog how to behave in canine company. It also prevents a lot of problems from happening.

There are two ways you can walk your pup:

  1. With a loose leash and communicating gently
  2. With a tense leash and communicating by pulling, yanking and/or dragging.

I will focus on the first one in this blog.

Walking your pup with a loose leash and presenting the outside world in a relaxed and confident manner is the foundation of a strong relationship of love, trust and respect. Your pup will view the world in a relaxed and confident state of mind. He or she will also learn to trust and listen to you on a daily basis and in a relaxed manner.

“What you practice is what you become.” – noteNot who you are, but what you become.

The truth of the matter is that you walk your dog EVERY day and several times a day! or you should! That´s a lot of practice, so you need to get this right.

A good walk not only provides exercise. It also provides structure, mental engagement and socialization.

Note: Going for a sniff is not the same as going for a walk. There is no exercise or mental engagement involved when you go for a sniff. Don´t get me wrong, sniffing and exploring it´s an important activity for your pup, but there is no skill involved here. You can actually use going for sniff it as a reward after a structured walk.

Going for a sniff is like you hanging out with your friends in a bar or a coffee hang. You are definitely not exercising your body and most probably not exercising your mind either. It´s great to hang, but unless you are the DUDE, there are other skills you want to become good and engage with. Actually, even DUDE has some kind of structure and discipline playing bowling!!!

Going for a walk means going from point A to point B with no tension on the leash and without stopping, unless your pup needs ¨to go¨ of course. (pee pee or pu pu) not marking. don´t aloud your pup to mark every 30 seconds. Keep a nice flow and rhythm when you walk.

When does the walk start?

The walk actually starts when you grab the leash or take the first action to go for a walk with your pup. Why is this important? This is important because at that moment your a setting up the terms of the walk.

If you put a lot of excitement because you want your dog to be happy, expect exactly that: A LOT OF EXCITEMENT. hmm so you create a lot of excitement and then you restrain him with a leash?? Can you see where this is going to lead? Yep, pulling, barking, lunging …Think about it, you are going for a walk not to herd sheep. If you put out a lot excitement and then you restrain him or her with the leash, you are actually sending your pup to failure. Remember: THE WALK IS A CALM ACTIVITY.

A leash should mean relaxation and self control, not excitement and craziness.  It´s a skill and a mindset on you and your pup. It´s simple: what you give is what you get back. See blog on Leash Communication

Now is this a rule that you should  never break? Not really, because it´s not a rule, it´s just awareness. If you want your dog to get excited and to pull because you are in a search and rescue job, that’s what you do. But if you want a calm walk for you and your pup, set it up for success right from the beginning.

Mastering the walk will give you access to walk your pup with other dogs. This is a great opportunity to help your pup learn acceptable ways of socially interacting with them! THE EASIER WAY FOR DOGS TO BOND IS BY WALKING TOGETHER. They become a team!

Not mastering the walk and communicating with constant tension on the leash  by pulling, yanking, and dragging can lead to Leash Aggression, which I will talk about in the next blog.

Also note that heeling is not the same as walking and has nothing to do with leash commination. Heeling is a ¨Dog Training¨ command which usually involves food or some kind of prey drive toy to keep your dog at all times on your side with no leash. It actually brings excitement into the picture and puts your dog into ¨working mode¨. It´s a great command, but I´ve seen too many times dogs that heel perfectly well and still have leash aggression. Do not get confused with this two different activities.

To wrap it up, I´d like to give this analogy of looking at leash communication as of ground work with horses. The difference is that with horses we need to learn the skill because they are ten times stronger than us. With dogs I´ve seen too many times people just avoiding the problem by putting a harness and restraining their pup by force. Your pup will not listen to you just becuase you are stronger. This might take care of liability (human problem), but it doesn´t take care of your pup´s problem, which is the tension on the leash.

I hope this will help you on your next walk.

© Gabriel Riesco, Fairfield CT,  October 2017


Leash Communication

Leash Communication

Today is all about how to communicate with the leash and how to prevent and fix leash aggression.

How you grab and communicate with your pup through the leash is very important. Before you even touch the leash you should be aware and in control of your body and mental state of mind.

Acknowledge that a leash should mean relaxation not excitement. If your dog has this wrong you need to fix it. When you put the leash on your dog you are restraining his or her movements. Getting your pup all excited and then restraining him/her with the leash it doesn’t make any sense, yet a lot of people do it.

When you grab the leash you should be relaxed, confident and looking forward to a calm and pleasant activity with your dog. Here is how you can achieve this:

Call your dog. Make sure your pup comes to you instead of you going to him/her.  Use a treat or a toy if you need to. Once he/she comes ask him or her to relax. Depends in the pup this might take a little bit of time.

When your dog is relaxed put the leash on.

Make sure there is never tension on the leash. Keep the leash loose at all times and if your dog decides to pull, do a tug to the side to break his or her balance.

When you do this use your dog´s energy not your´s. This way you will be able to do it with your wrist or even with fingers instead of yanking him/her using your whole arm. You achieve this by pulling a little bit to the side.

Do not yank or be forceful. Remember this has nothing to do with strength. Don´t pull him/her backwards and never maintain tension. Every time you do a gentle tug you have to relax when he/she stops. Is a tension-release move, not a tension-tension restrain. Your dog will not listen to you just because you are stronger.


Ex: Don´t let your pup sniff something because he/she pulled. Or don’t let your pup greet another dog because he/she is pulling.

If you do, you will be teaching your pup that pulling gets them what they want. This kind of inconsistency creates a lot of confusion and stress in your pup, because sometimes you reward pulling and sometimes you get mad for doing so.

This type of human behavior is what creates leash aggression. And  Leash aggression is always created by humans.

Remember that Leash Communication is a skill on you not on your dog. If you are not in control of yourself you won´t be able to control your dog.

As Plato said: “The first and greatest victory is to conquer self. To be conquered by self is of all things the most shameful and vile”

© Gabriel Riesco, Fairfield CT,  October 2017